Australia is home to a dynamic not-for-profit (NFP) sector that is vital in addressing social, environmental, and community issues. NFPs in Australia can take various forms, including public companies limited by guarantee, incorporated associations, trusts, and private companies limited by shares (more commonly when wholly owned by an existing not-for-profit entity). In this comprehensive blog, we will explore each of these structures, their unique characteristics, and the significance of their existence in the Australian philanthropic landscape.

Public Companies Limited by Guarantee

A public company limited by guarantee is one of the most commonly adopted organisational structures for NFPs in Australia. Under this structure, members pledge to guarantee a specific sum in the event the organisation faces financial liabilities. This guarantee is usually a nominal amount, often as low as one dollar. The primary advantage of this structure is that it offers limited liability to its members, safeguarding their personal assets in case the organisation faces financial difficulties. This makes it an attractive choice for more prominent and established not-for-profit organisations.

Key Features of Public Companies Limited by Guarantee:

  • Limited Liability: Members are protected from personal liability, and their personal assets remain safe.
  • Suitable for Larger Organisations: This structure is often chosen by larger, more complex NFPs and entities with broader operations (interstate and/or international).
  • Governance and Regulation: Such companies are governed by the Corporations Act 2001 and are subject to regulatory oversight.

Incorporated Associations

Incorporated associations are prevalent among grassroots not-for-profits, community groups, and local clubs in Australia. These organisations are registered under state or territory legislation (such as the Associations Incorporation Acts in New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and the Associations Incorporation Reform Act 2012 in Victoria). Incorporated associations offer a straightforward governance structure with fewer administrative requirements, making them accessible to smaller community initiatives.

Key Features of Incorporated Associations:

  • Simplified Governance: This structure is known for its ease of administration, making it suitable for small-scale, community-driven organisations.
  • Legal Recognition: It provides legal recognition and protection for members, making it a popular choice for smaller not-for-profits.
  • Compliance Requirements: Incorporated associations must adhere to the relevant state or territory legislation and follow reporting and administrative obligations.


Not-for-profits in Australia can also choose to operate as trusts, specifically charitable trusts. These trusts hold assets or property for the benefit of a particular charitable cause or mission. Charitable trusts are often used by organisations that focus on causes such as education, healthcare, poverty alleviation, or environmental conservation.

Key Features of Charitable Trusts:

  • Asset Protection: Charitable trusts ensure that assets are preserved for their intended charitable purposes.
  • Transparent Management: They are known for their transparent asset management and allocation.
  • Focused on Charitable Causes: Charitable trusts could be ideal for organisations with a clear and dedicated mission.

Private Companies Limited by Shares (Wholly Owned by NFP Entity)

While private companies limited by shares are traditionally associated with for-profit entities, they can be employed by not-for-profits in Australia under specific circumstances. 

This can occur when an existing not-for-profit entity wholly owns a private company, which typically functions as a subsidiary to support the parent organisation’s goals. This structure can be employed for various reasons, including financial or operational benefits, and it enables the private company to engage in income-generating activities while maintaining the parent entity’s not-for-profit status.

Alternatively, where there are sufficient safeguards in place in the governing documents of the company (such as restrictions on the issue of dividends and the sale of shares for a gain), the shareholders need not be not-for-profit entities. 

Key Features of Private Companies Limited by Shares (Wholly Owned by NFP Entity):

  • Financial Sustainability: Private companies under this structure can generate income to support the parent NFP’s objectives.
  • Legal Separation: There is a legal separation between the private company and its parent NFP entity.
  • Maintenance of Not-for-Profit Status: The parent NFP entity retains its not-for-profit status while benefiting from the subsidiary’s activities.

Benefits of Diverse Structures

The presence of diverse not-for-profit structures in Australia offers numerous advantages, contributing to the resilience and adaptability of the sector. Here are some key benefits:

  • Flexibility: NFPs have the freedom to select the structure that aligns best with their mission, size, and complexity.
  • Limited Liability: Structures like public companies limited by guarantee protect members from personal liability, ensuring their personal assets remain secure.
  • Accessibility: The variety of structures allows organisations of all sizes and purposes to operate efficiently.
  • Asset Protection: Trust structures safeguard assets for their intended charitable purposes, enhancing transparency and accountability.
  • Income Generation: The private company limited by shares structure allows not-for-profits to engage in commercial ventures, generating income to support their charitable activities.


The not-for-profit sector in Australia thrives on diversity, offering a range of structural options that empower organisations to cater to the unique needs and missions of their communities. Whether operating as public companies limited by guarantee, incorporated associations, trusts, or private companies limited by shares, these entities play a pivotal role in shaping Australia’s social and philanthropic landscape. The strength of this sector lies in its adaptability, allowing not-for-profits to address a diverse array of community needs and drive positive change effectively. By understanding the significance of these diverse structures, we can better appreciate the versatility and resilience of Australia’s NFP sector.

Starting a Not-For-Profit (NFP) organisation is a noble endeavor, but the path can be complex. Birchgrove Legal can support you every step of the way. Ready to embark on your NFP journey? Reach out to us and let’s bring your vision to life.

Email: info@birchgrovelegal.com.au 

Phone: +61 2 9018 1067